Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/104929
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dc.contributor.authorPeyrot, W.en
dc.contributor.authorLee, S.en
dc.contributor.authorMilaneschi, Y.en
dc.contributor.authorAbdellaoui, A.en
dc.contributor.authorByrne, E.en
dc.contributor.authorEsko, T.en
dc.contributor.authorDe Geus, E.en
dc.contributor.authorHemani, G.en
dc.contributor.authorHottenga, J.en
dc.contributor.authorKloiber, S.en
dc.contributor.authorLevinson, D.en
dc.contributor.authorLucae, S.en
dc.contributor.authorMartin, N.en
dc.contributor.authorMedland, S.en
dc.contributor.authorMetspalu, A.en
dc.contributor.authorMilani, L.en
dc.contributor.authorNoethen, M.en
dc.contributor.authorPotash, J.en
dc.contributor.authorRietschel, M.en
dc.contributor.authorRietveld, C.en
dc.contributor.authoret al.en
dc.date.issued2015en
dc.identifier.citationMolecular Psychiatry, 2015; 20(6):735-743en
dc.identifier.issn1359-4184en
dc.identifier.issn1476-5578en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2440/104929-
dc.descriptionDebbie A Lawlor and Lyle J Palmer are members of the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (SSGAC).en
dc.description.abstractAn association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14 949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15 138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75–0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884 105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120 000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status.en
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityWJ Peyrot, SH Lee, Y Milaneschi, A Abdellaoui, EM Byrne, T Esko, EJC de Geus, G Hemani, JJ Hottenga, S Kloiber, DF Levinson, S Lucae, Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium, Corporate Collaborator, NG Martin, SE Medland, A Metspalu, L Milani, MM Noethen, JB Potash, M Rietschel, CA Rietveld, S Ripke, J Shi, Social Science Genetic Association Consortium, Corporate Collaborator, G Willemsen, Z Zhu, DI Boomsma, NR Wray, and BWJH Penninxen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupen
dc.rights© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limiteden
dc.subjectMajor Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (Corporate Collaborator); Social Science Genetic Association Consortium Corporate Collaborator; Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Corporate Collaborator; Social Science Genetic Association Consortium Corporate Collaboratoren
dc.titleThe association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ∼25 000 subjectsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.rmid0030032674en
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/mp.2015.50en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FT0991360en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DE130100614en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/613608en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1011506en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1047956en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/241944en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/339462en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/389927en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/389875en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/389891en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/389892en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/389938en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/442915en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/442981en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/496675en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/496739en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/552485en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/552498en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/613602en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/613674en
dc.relation.granthttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/619667en
dc.identifier.pubid196460-
pubs.library.collectionMedicine publicationsen
pubs.library.teamDS11en
pubs.verification-statusVerifieden
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden
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