Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/114428
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Type: Theses
Title: Factors influencing year 9 students’ mathematics performance related to lower order thinking (LOT) and higher order thinking (HOT) in Aceh, Indonesia: a multivariate and multilevel analysis
Author: Elizar
Issue Date: 2018
School/Discipline: School of Education
Abstract: This study examines various factors associated with students’ mathematics performance, specifically in relation to higher order thinking (HOT) and lower order thinking (LOT). It examines the student-, teacher- and school-level factors, their interrelationships and impact on Year 9 students’ mathematics performance in Aceh, Indonesia. The theoretical basis of this study comes from research on childhood cognitive development and educational theory, educational effectiveness theory, and a review of numerous previous studies related to how variables at student-, teacher- and school-level contribute to students’ mathematics performance. The conceptual framework is a multilevel analysis of the factors influencing students’ performance related to LOT and HOT designed to examine the possible relationships within and between student-, teacher- and school-level variables. Student-level variables include students’ background, attitudes and beliefs, as well as classroom practices as perceived by students. Teacher-level variables include teachers’ background, beliefs, and classroom practices as perceived by teachers. School-level variables include school demographics information and resources. The study employs a quantitative method. Questionnaires and a mathematics test were used to obtain data from students, teachers and schools. Questionnaires were given to students, mathematics teachers and principals/administrators at the schools and a mathematics test administered to the students. The questionnaires were administered to a total of 1135 Year 9 students, 46 Year 9 mathematics teachers and 25 schools from one major city (representing the urban area) and one district (representing the rural area) in the province of Aceh, Indonesia. Scales in the questionnaires were validated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis. The data was then analysed employing single-level and multilevel analysis techniques. Partial least squares path analysis (PLS-PA) and hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) were employed to examine the relationships between variables tested in this study. The results from the single-level analysis using PLS-PA show that there are five variables directly influencing students’ mathematics performance relating to LOT: (a) students’ beliefs concerning mathematics related to LOT; (b) gender; (c) school location; (d) socio-economic status (SES); and (e) students’ attitude of liking mathematics. The multilevel analysis using HLM indicates that there are seven variables (three at student-level, three at teacher-level and one at school-level) that have a direct impact on the students’ mathematics performance related to LOT: (a) students’ liking of mathematics; (b) students’ beliefs concerning mathematics related to LOT; (c) students’ beliefs concerning mathematics related to HOT; (d) teachers’ professional development; (e) instructional activities; (f) teachers’ beliefs concerning mathematics related to HOT; and (g) school resources. The results from the single-level analysis using PLS-PA indicate that four variables directly influence students’ mathematics performance related to HOT, namely: (a) students’ mathematics performance related to LOT; (b) students’ educational expectations; (c) SES; and (d) school location. The multilevel analysis using HLM indicates seven variables (four at student-level, two at teacher-level and one at school-level) that directly influence student mathematics performance related to HOT, namely: (a) students’ mathematics performance related to LOT; (b) students’ educational expectations; (c) students’ individual judgement of mathematics ability; (d) students’ beliefs concerning mathematics related to LOT; (e) teacher certification; (f) teachers’ beliefs concerning mathematics teaching related to HOT; and (g) the availability of a ‘Mathematics Olympiad’ club at the schools. This study contributes to the literature of how student-, teacher- and school-level variables influence students’ mathematics performance related to LOT and HOT, especially in the context of Aceh, Indonesia, a developing nation. This study also provides empirical evidence of Acehnese students’ mathematics performance related to LOT and HOT, indicating their poor performance in questions related to both LOT and HOT. While students throughout the world struggle with mathematics problems that require HOT, in Aceh, and Indonesia in general, students are still struggling with LOT. This is clearly a subject of a great concern for the development of mathematics education in Aceh and Indonesia. As the current trends in education have shifted from lower order to higher order thinking, Indonesia as a rapidly developing nation needs to meet the challenge of progressing the nation’s education. Thus, the findings of this study have important implications for the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning in Aceh, Indonesia. Mathematics teaching and learning that improve both lower order thinking and higher order thinking skills should be of major concern for Indonesia and the efficient mathematics education of its students.
Advisor: Darmawan, Igusti Ngurah
Lynch, Peggy
Dissertation Note: Thesis (Ph.D.) -- University of Adelaide, School of Education, 2018.
Keywords: mathematics education
lower order thinking
higher order thinking
Rasch
structural equation modeling
hierarchical linear modeling
Provenance: This electronic version is made publicly available by the University of Adelaide in accordance with its open access policy for student theses. Copyright in this thesis remains with the author. This thesis may incorporate third party material which has been used by the author pursuant to Fair Dealing exceptions. If you are the owner of any included third party copyright material you wish to be removed from this electronic version, please complete the take down form located at: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/legals
DOI: 10.25909/5b99b595701d0
Appears in Collections:Research Theses

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