Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Journal article
Title: Oligonuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes: selectivity between bacteria and eukaryotic cells
Author: Gorle, A.
Li, X.
Primrose, S.
Li, F.
Feterl, M.
Kinobe, R.
Heimann, K.
Warner, J.
Richard Keene, F.
Grant Collins, J.
Citation: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2016; 71(6):1547-1555
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 0305-7453
Statement of
Anil K. Gorle, Xin Li, Sebastian Primrose, Fangfei Li, Marshall Feterl, Robert T. Kinobe, Kirsten Heimann, Jeffrey M. Warner, F. Richard Keene, and J. Grant Collins
Abstract: Objectives: The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the in vitro activities of a series of di-, tri- and tetra-nuclear ruthenium complexes (Rubbn, Rubbn-tri and Rubbn-tetra) against a range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and compare the antimicrobial activities with the corresponding toxicities against eukaryotic cells; and (ii) compare MIC values with achievable in vivo serum concentrations for the least toxic ruthenium complex. Methods: The in vitro activities were determined by MIC assays and time-kill curve experiments, while the toxicities of the ruthenium complexes were determined using the Alamar blue cytotoxicity assay. A preliminary pharmacokinetic study was undertaken to determine the Rubb₁₂ serum concentration in mice as a function of time after administration. Results: Rubb₁₂, Rubb₁₂-tri and Rubb₁₂-tetra are highly active, with MIC values of 1-2 mg/L (0.5-1.5 μM) for a range of Gram-positive strains, but showed variable activities against a panel of Gram-negative bacteria. Time-kill experiments indicated that Rubb₁₂, Rubb₁₂-tri and Rubb₁₂-tetra are bactericidal and kill bacteria within 3-8 h. The di-, tri- and tetra-nuclear complexes were ∼50 times more toxic to Gram-positive bacteria and 25 times more toxic to Gram-negative strains, classified as susceptible, than to liver and kidney cells. Preliminary pharmacokinetic experiments established that serum concentrations higher than MIC values can be obtained for Rubb₁₂ with an administered dose of 32 mg/kg. Conclusions: The ruthenium complexes, particularly Rubb₁₂, have potential as new antimicrobial agents. The structure of the dinuclear ruthenium complex can be readily further modified in order to increase the selectivity for bacteria over eukaryotic cells.
Keywords: Ruthenium
Rights: © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
RMID: 0030046231
DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw026
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.