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dc.contributor.authorNassar, Z.-
dc.contributor.authorAisha, A.-
dc.contributor.authorAl Suede, F.-
dc.contributor.authorMajid, A.-
dc.contributor.authorMajid, A.-
dc.identifier.citationBiological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2012; 35(4):503-508-
dc.descriptionPublished online January 23, 2012-
dc.description.abstractBreast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and it can metastasize very rapidly. Tumor metastasis is the primary cause of cancer deaths. In the present study, we investigated the capability of koetjapic acid, a natural triterpene, in the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of metastasis in the breast cancer cell line (MCF 7). The effects of koetjapic acid against 4 steps of metastasis have been assessed, including cell survival, clonogenicity, migration and invasion. Koetjapic acid exhibited cytotoxic activity against MCF 7 cells with an IC(50) of 68.88±6.075 μg/mL. The mechanism of cell death was confirmed due to the induction of apoptosis machineries; early and late apoptosis-related changes were detected, including the stimulation of caspase 3/7 activities, apoptosis-related morphological changes such as membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. A mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was found to be involved in koetjapic acid-induced cell death induction. Moreover, at a sub-toxic dose (15 μg/mL), Koetjapic acid inhibited cell migration and invasion significantly. Finally, koetjapic acid inhibited the colony formation properties of MCF 7 significantly. These results indicate that koetjapic acid possesses significant antitumor and antimetastatic effects, and warrants further investigation.-
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityZeyad D. Nassar, Abdalrahim F. A. Aisha, Fouad Saleih R. Al Suede, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, and Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid-
dc.publisherPharmaceutical Society of Japan-
dc.rights© 2012 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan-
dc.subjectMetastasis; breast cancer; natural product; migration; clonogenicity; apoptosis-
dc.titleIn vitro antimetastatic activity of koetjapic acid against breast cancer cells-
dc.typeJournal article-
dc.identifier.orcidNassar, Z. [0000-0002-7779-2697]-
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