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Type: Journal article
Title: Effect of gender on the acute effects of whey protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying and gut hormone responses in healthy young adults
Author: Giezenaar, C.
Luscombe-Marsh, N.
Hutchison, A.
Lange, K.
Hausken, T.
Jones, K.
Horowitz, M.
Chapman, I.
Soenen, S.
Citation: Nutrition and Diabetes, 2018; 8(1):40-1-40-12
Publisher: Springer Nature
Issue Date: 2018
ISSN: 2044-4052
Statement of
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Kylie Lange, Trygve Hausken, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman and Stijn Soenen
Abstract: Background/Objectives: Protein supplements, usually drinks rich in whey protein, are used widely for weight loss purposes in overweight adults. Information comparing the effects of whey protein on appetite and energy intake in men and women is limited. The objective was to compare the acute effects of whey-protein intake on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying and gut hormones in healthy young men and women. Subject/Methods: Gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography), blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0-180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180-210 min) were determined after ingestion of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) whey protein, or a flavoured-water control drink (~2 kcal) in 8 healthy young men (25 ± 2 y, 72 ± 3 kg, 23 ± 1 kg/m²) and 8 women (23 ± 1 y, 64 ± 2 kg, 24 ± 0.4 kg/m²). Results: There was a protein-load effect on gastric emptying, blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, CCK, GIP and GLP-1 concentrations, and perceptions of hunger, desire to eat and prospective food consumption (P < 0.05). Ad libitum energy intake (average decrease of 206 ± 39 kcal (15 ± 2%) for men and of 46 ± 54 kcal (0 ± 26%) for women for the mean of the intakes after the 30 and 70 g whey-protein loads) and hunger were suppressed more by whey-protein ingestion in men than women (P = 0.046). There was no difference in suppression of energy intake between the 30 and 70 g protein loads (P = 0.75, interaction effect P = 0.19). Consequently, total energy intake (protein drink plus buffet meal) increased more compared to control in women than men (P = 0.010). The drinks emptied more slowly, and plasma glucagon, CCK and GLP-1 increased less after the protein drinks, in women than men (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The acute effects of whey protein ingestion on appetite, energy intake, gastric emptying and gut hormone responses are influenced by gender in healthy young adults.
Keywords: Humans; Cholecystokinin; Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide; Glucagon; Insulin; Prospective Studies; Cross-Over Studies; Double-Blind Method; Appetite; Sex Factors; Energy Intake; Gastric Emptying; Adult; Female; Male; Glucagon-Like Peptide 1; Ghrelin; Young Adult; Whey Proteins
Rights: © The Author(s) 2018. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
RMID: 0030094971
DOI: 10.1038/s41387-018-0048-7
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Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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