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|Title:||Nitrogen dynamics in soil fertilized with slow release brown coal-urea fertilizers|
|Citation:||Scientific Reports, 2018; 8(1):14577-1-14577-10|
|Biplob K. Saha, Michael T. Rose, Vanessa N.L. Wong, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, Antonio F. Patti|
|Abstract:||Reducing the release rate of urea can increase its use efficiency and minimize negative effects on the environment. A novel fertilizer material that was formed by blending brown coal (BC) with urea, delayed fertilizer N release in controlled climatic conditions in a glasshouse, through strong retention facilitated by the extensive surface area, porous structure and chemical functional groups in the BC. However, the role of BC as a carrier of synthetic urea and the effect of their interaction with various soil types on the dynamics and mineralization of N remains largely unclear. Therefore, a soil column incubation study was conducted to assess the release, transformation and transportation of N from several different brown coal-urea (BCU) granules, compared to commercial urea. Blending and subsequent granulation of urea with BC substantially increased fertilizer N retention in soil by decreasing gaseous emissions and leaching of N compared to urea alone, irrespective of soil type. The BCU granule containing the highest proportion of BC had lower leaching and gaseous emissions and maintained considerably higher mineral and mineralizable N in topsoil. Possible modes of action of the BCU granules have been proposed, emphasizing the role of BC in enhancing N retention over a longer period of time. The results support the notion that BCU granules can be used as a slow release and enhanced efficiency fertilizer for increasing availability and use efficiency of N by crops.|
|Rights:||© The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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