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Type: Journal article
Title: Plasma free amino acid responses to whey protein and their relationships with gastric emptying, blood glucose- and appetite-regulatory hormones and energy intake in lean healthy men
Author: Elovaris, R.A.
Hutchison, A.T.
Lange, K.
Horowitz, M.
Feinle-Bisset, C.
Luscombe-Marsh, N.D.
Citation: Nutrients, 2019; 11(10):2465-1-2465-16
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 2072-6643
Statement of
Rachel A. Elovaris, Amy T. Hutchison, Kylie Lange, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset and Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh
Abstract: This study determined the effects of increasing loads of whey protein on plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, and their relationships with gastric emptying, blood glucose- and appetite-regulatory hormones, blood glucose and energy intake. Eighteen healthy lean men participated in a double-blinded study, in which they consumed, on 3 separate occasions, in randomised order, 450-mL drinks containing either 30 g (L) or 70 g (H) of pure whey protein isolate, or control with 0 g of protein (C). Gastric emptying, serum concentrations of AAs, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1), insulin, glucagon and blood glucose were measured before and after the drinks over 180 min. Then energy intake was quantified. All AAs were increased, and 7/20 AAs were increased more by H than L. Incremental areas under the curve (iAUC0-180 min) for CCK, GLP-1, insulin and glucagon were correlated positively with iAUCs of 19/20 AAs (p < 0.05). The strongest correlations were with the branched-chain AAs as well as lysine, tyrosine, methionine, tryptophan, and aspartic acid (all R2 > 0.52, p < 0.05). Blood glucose did not correlate with any AA (all p > 0.05). Ghrelin and energy intake correlated inversely, but only weakly, with 15/20 AAs (all R2 < 0.34, p < 0.05). There is a strong relationship between gluco-regulatory hormones with a number of (predominantly essential) AAs. However, the factors mediating the effects of protein on blood glucose and energy intake are likely to be multifactorial.
Keywords: Branched-chain amino acids; dairy; appetite regulation; cholecystokinin; glucagon-like peptide-1; glucagon; human
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/nu11102465
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