Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/126285
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Type: Journal article
Title: Clinical importance of the Mandalay spitting cobra (Naja mandalayensis) in upper Myanmar - Bites, envenoming and ophthalmia
Author: Oo, S.S.L.
Myat-Thet-Nwe
Khin-Maung-Gyi
Than-Aye
Mi-Mi-Khine
Myat-Myat-Thein
Myo-thant
Pyae-Phyo-Aung
Oakkar-Kyaw-Khant
Aye-Zarchi-San
Du-Wun-Moe
Htay-Aung
O'Shea, M.
Mahmood, M.
Peh, C.
White, J.
Warrell, D.
Citation: Toxicon, 2020; 184:39-47
Publisher: Elsevier
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 0041-0101
1879-3150
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Sai-Sein-Lin-Oo, Myat-Thet-Nwe, Khin-Maung-Gyi, Than-Aye, Mi-Mi-Khine, Myat-Myat-Thein, Myo-Thant, Pyae-Phyo-Aung, Oakkar-Kyaw-Khant, Aye-Zarchi-San, Du-Wun-Moe, Htay-Aung, Mark O'Shea, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Chen Au Peh, Julian White, David A. Warrell
Abstract: Examination of 18 cobras brought to three hospitals in the Mandalay Region by patients bitten or spat at by them distinguished 3 monocled cobras (Naja kaouthia) and 15 Mandalay spitting cobras (N. mandalayensis), based on their morphological characteristics. We confirm and extend the known distributions and habitats of both N. mandalayensis and N. kaouthia in Upper Myanmar. Clinical symptoms of local and systemic envenoming by N. mandalayensis are described for the first time. These included local swelling, blistering and necrosis and lifethreatening systemic neurotoxicity. More information is needed about the clinical phenotype and management of bites by N. mandalayensis, the commoner of the two cobras in Upper Myanmar. Since the current cobra antivenom manufactured in Myanmar has lower pre-clinical efficacy against N. mandalayensis than N. kaouthia, there is a need for more specific antivenom therapy.
Keywords: Naja mandalayensis; Naja kaouthia, spitting cobra; Venom ophthalmia; Neurotoxic envenoming; Local necrosis; Antivenom; Upper Myanmar
Description: Available online 3 June 2020
Rights: © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RMID: 1000022079
DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.05.023
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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