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Type: Journal article
Title: Enteroendocrine hormone secretion and metabolic control: importance of the region of the gut stimulation
Author: Xie, C.
Jones, K.L.
Rayner, C.K.
Wu, T.
Citation: Pharmaceutics, 2020; 12(9):1-23
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2020
ISSN: 1999-4923
Statement of
Cong Xie, Karen L. Jones, Christopher K. Rayner and Tongzhi Wu
Abstract: It is now widely appreciated that gastrointestinal function is central to the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. Following meal ingestion, the delivery of nutrients from the stomach into the small intestine (i.e., gastric emptying) is tightly controlled to optimise their subsequent digestion and absorption. The complex interaction of intraluminal nutrients (and other bioactive compounds, such as bile acids) with the small and large intestine induces the release of an array of gastrointestinal hormones from specialised enteroendocrine cells (EECs) distributed in various regions of the gut, which in turn to regulate gastric emptying, appetite and postprandial glucose metabolism. Stimulation of gastrointestinal hormone secretion, therefore, represents a promising strategy for the management of metabolic disorders, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). That EECs are distributed distinctively between the proximal and distal gut suggests that the region of the gut exposed to intraluminal stimuli is of major relevance to the secretion profile of gastrointestinal hormones and associated metabolic responses. This review discusses the process of intestinal digestion and absorption and their impacts on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and the regulation of postprandial metabolism, with an emphasis on the differences between the proximal and distal gut, and implications for the management of obesity and T2DM.
Keywords: energy intake
gastrointestinal hormone
nutrient absorption
nutrient digestion
postprandial glycaemia
region of the gut
type 2 diabetes
Rights: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12090790
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