Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/130501
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Type: Journal article
Title: Evidence for glucagon secretion and function within the human gut
Author: Sun, E.W.
Martin, A.M.
de Fontgalland, D.
Sposato, L.
Rabbitt, P.
Hollington, P.
Wattchow, D.A.
Colella, A.D.
Chataway, T.
Wewer Albrechtsen, N.J.
Spencer, N.J.
Young, R.L.
Keating, D.J.
Citation: Endocrinology, 2021; 162(4):4-12
Publisher: The Endocrine Society
Issue Date: 2021
ISSN: 0013-7227
1945-7170
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Emily W Sun, Alyce M Martin, Dayan de Fontgalland, Luigi Sposato, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington ... et al.
Abstract: Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic α cells in response to hypoglycaemia and increases hepatic glucose output through hepatic glucagon receptors (GCGR). There is evidence supporting the notion of extra-pancreatic glucagon but its source and physiological functions remain elusive. Intestinal tissue were obtained from patients undergoing surgical resection of cancer. Mass spectrometry analysis was used to detect glucagon from mucosal lysate. Static incubations of mucosal tissue were performed to assess glucagon secretory response. Glucagon concentration was quantitated using a highly specific sandwich ELISA. A cholesterol uptake assay and an isolated murine colonic motility assay were used to assess the physiological functions of intestinal GCGR. Fully processed glucagon was detected by mass spectrometry in human intestinal mucosal lysate. High glucose evoked significant glucagon secretion from human ileal tissue independent of SGLT and KATP channels, contrasting glucose-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. The GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 attenuated glucose-induced glucagon secretion from the human ileum. GCGR blockade significantly increased cholesterol uptake in human ileal crypt culture and markedly slowed ex vivo colonic motility. Our findings describe the human gut as a potential source of extrapancreatic glucagon and demonstrate a novel enteric glucagon/GCGR circuit with important physiological functions beyond glycaemic regulation.
Keywords: GLP-1
Glucagon
Gut hormones
enteroendocrine cells
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1210/endocr/bqab022
Grant ID: http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/LP150100419
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/nhmrc/1164475
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