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Type: Journal article
Title: Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake
Author: Bowen, J.
Noakes, M.
Clifton, P.
Citation: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2006; 91(8):2913-2919
Publisher: Endocrine Society
Issue Date: 2006
ISSN: 0021-972X
Statement of
Bowen, Jane; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M
Abstract: <h4>Context</h4>Although dietary protein produces higher acute satiety relative to carbohydrate, the influence of protein source and body mass index (BMI) has not been clearly described.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective of the study was to assess postprandial responses to different protein sources, compared with glucose, in males with normal and high BMI.<h4>Design</h4>This was a randomized, crossover study of four preloads followed by blood sampling (+15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180 min) and buffet meal.<h4>Setting</h4>The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic.<h4>Participants</h4>The study population included 72 men, with a BMI range 20.6-39.9 kg/m(2).<h4>Interventions</h4>Interventions consisted of liquid preloads (1.1 MJ, 450 ml) containing 50 g whey, soy, gluten, or glucose.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (n = 38), ad libitum energy intake, and appetite ratings were measured.<h4>Results</h4>Energy intake was 10% lower after all protein preloads, compared with the glucose treatment (P < 0.05), independent of BMI status and protein type. All protein loads prolonged the postprandial suppression of ghrelin (P < 0.01) and elevation of GLP-1 (P < 0.01) and cholecystokinin (P < 0.05). Fasting GLP-1 concentrations [overweight, 17.5 +/- 1.3; lean, 14.7 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (5.2 +/- 0.4 and 4.4 +/- 0.1 pmol/liter, respectively); P < 0.001] and postprandial responses (P = 0.038) were higher in overweight subjects.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Whey, soy, and gluten similarly tend to reduce ad libitum food intake 3 h later in lean and overweight males relative to glucose. Postprandial ghrelin, GLP-1, insulin, and cholecystokinin may contribute to this higher satiety after protein consumption. GLP-1 concentrations are increased in overweight subjects, which may affect satiety responses in this group.
Keywords: Humans
Body Weight
Peptide Hormones
Blood Glucose
Dietary Proteins
Milk Proteins
Soybean Proteins
Body Mass Index
Regression Analysis
Cross-Over Studies
Energy Intake
Appetite Regulation
Middle Aged
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Whey Proteins
DOI: 10.1210/jc.2006-0609
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