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Type: Journal article
Title: Vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function relates to body mass index and glucose in obese and nonobese children
Author: Pena Vargas, A.
Wiltshire, E.
MacKenzie, K.
Gent, R.
Piotto, L.
Hirte, C.
Couper, J.
Citation: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2006; 91(11):4467-4471
Publisher: Endocrine Society
Issue Date: 2006
ISSN: 0021-972X
Statement of
Alexia Sophie Peña, Esko Wiltshire, Karen MacKenzie, Roger Gent, Lino Piotto, Craig Hirte, and Jennifer Couper
Abstract: <h4>Context</h4>Endothelial and smooth muscle dysfunction are critical precursors of atherosclerosis. These can be detected in children at risk of cardiovascular disease.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective of this study is to evaluate endothelial and smooth muscle function and their determinants using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilatation (GTN) in obese, nonobese, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children.<h4>Design</h4>This is a cross-sectional study.<h4>Subjects</h4>The study subjects were 270 children [140 males, mean age 13.7 (2.8) yr] including 58 obese, 53 nonobese, and 159 T1DM children.<h4>Measurements</h4>Vascular function (FMD and GTN), body mass index (BMI) z-score, blood pressure, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipids, folate, homocysteine, and high sensitive C-reactive protein were measured.<h4>Results</h4>FMD and GTN were significantly lower in obese and T1DM compared with nonobese subjects (P < 0.001, P < 0.001). FMD and GTN were similarly reduced in obese and T1DM subjects (P = 0.22, P = 0.28). In all nondiabetic subjects (n = 111), both FMD and GTN were significantly and independently related to BMI z-score (r = -0.28, P = 0.003, beta = -0.36, P < 0.001) and weight z-score (beta = -0.31, P = 0.002; r = -0.52, P < 0.001). FMD related independently to total cholesterol (beta = -0.22, P = 0.02). GTN related independently to vessel diameter (beta = -0.49, P < 0.001). GTN related to glucose within the normal range (r = -0.34, P = 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Children with obesity and T1DM have a similar degree of vascular dysfunction. BMI and weight adjusted for age and sex relate to endothelial and smooth muscle function in nonobese and obese children. Glucose relates to smooth muscle function in nonobese nondiabetic children. This suggests a continuum effect of BMI and glucose within the normal range on vascular function in childhood.
Keywords: Muscle, Smooth, Vascular
Blood Vessels
Endothelium, Vascular
Cardiovascular Diseases
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Blood Glucose
Body Mass Index
Risk Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
DOI: 10.1210/jc.2006-0863
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Paediatrics publications

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