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Type: Journal article
Title: Australian research on ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A
Author: Leong, S.
Hocking, A.
Pitt, J.
Kazi, B.
Emmett, R.
Scott, E.
Citation: International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2006; 111(Suppl 1):S10-S17
Publisher: Elsevier Science BV
Issue Date: 2006
ISSN: 0168-1605
1879-3460
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Responsibility: 
S.L. Leong, A.D. Hocking, J.I. Pitt, B.A. Kazi, R.W. Emmett and E.S. Scott
Abstract: The presence of the mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), has been reported in Australian grape products. Comprehensive surveys of Australian wines have determined that the frequency and level of OTA contamination are low. Aspergillus carbonarius is the primary OTA-producing species associated with grapes in Australia, and all isolates tested to date produce OTA. Aspergillus niger is isolated more frequently from vineyards, however, few strains produce OTA. A. carbonarius and A. niger exist as saprophytes in the top layer of soil beneath vines, from where they are thought to be blown onto bunches. The level of A. carbonarius in soil may be reduced by temperatures above or below the optimum temperature for survival (25 °C), by high soil moisture content, and by modifications to tillage and mulching practices. A. carbonarius is an opportunistic pathogen of damaged berries. In the absence of damage, spores may exist on berry surfaces without causing visible rots. Aspergillus rots are associated with black Aspergillus species, primarily A. niger, A. carbonarius and A. aculeatus. The potential for such rots is increased with berry damage, inoculum coverage and berry maturity. Susceptibility to berry splitting is related, in part, to bunch structure, and may be variety-dependent or influenced by rainfall, irrigation and canopy management. Black Aspergillus spp. are closely associated with berries near the main stem of the bunch. During winemaking, around 80% of the OTA initially present in grapes is removed, primarily with the skins and pulp during pressing. Additional reductions occur with the removal of precipitated grape and yeast solids. Bentonite in white wine and yeast hulls in red wine were the most effective non-carbonaceous fining agents for the removal of OTA.
Keywords: Ochratoxin A; grapes; wine; aspergillus carbonarius
Rights: Copyright © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
RMID: 0020061495
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.02.005
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications

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