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Type: Journal article
Title: Prevalence of refractive errors in a Brazilian population: the Botucatu Eye Study
Author: Schellini, S.
Durkin, S.
Hoyama, E.
Hirai, F.
Cordeiro, R.
Casson, R.
Selva, D.
Padovani, C.
Citation: Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 2009; 16(2):90-97
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Issue Date: 2009
ISSN: 0928-6586
Statement of
Silvana Artioli Schellini, Shane R. Durkin, Erika Hoyama, Flavio Hirai, Ricardo Cordeiro, Robert J. Casson, Dinesh Selva, Carlos Roberto Padovani
Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and demographic associations of refractive error in Botucatu, Brazil. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional prevalence study was conducted, which involved random, household cluster sampling of an urban Brazilian population in Botucatu. There were 3000 individuals aged 1 to 91 years (mean 38.3) who were eligible to participate in the study. Refractive error measurements were obtained by objective refraction. RESULTS: Objective refractive error examinations were performed on 2454 residents within this sample (81.8% of eligible participants). The mean age was 38 years (standard deviation (SD) 20.8 years, Range 1 to 91) and females comprised 57.5% of the study population. Myopia (spherical equivalent (SE) < -0.5 dropters (D)) was most prevalent among those aged 30-39 years (29.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.8-35.1) and least prevalent among children under 10 years (3.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-7.3). Conversely hypermetropia (SE > 0.5D) was most prevalent among participants under 10 years (86.9%; 95% CI 81.6-91.1) and least prevalent in the fourth decade (32.5%; 95% CI 28.2-37.0). Participants aged 70 years or older bore the largest burden of astigmatism (cylinder at least -0.5D) and anisometropia (difference in SE of > 0.5D) with a prevalence of 71.7% (95% CI 64.8-78.0) 55.0% (95% CI 47.6-62.2) respectively. Myopia and hypermetropia were significantly associated with age in a bimodal manner (P < 0.001), whereas anisometropia and astigmatism increased in line with age (P < 0.001). Multivariate modeling confirmed age-related risk factors for refractive error and revealed several gender, occupation and ethnic-related risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results represent previously unreported data on refractive error within this Brazilian population. They signal a need to continue to screen for refractive error within this population and to ensure that people have adequate access to optical correction.
Keywords: Humans
Vision Disorders
Refractive Errors
Refraction, Ocular
Cluster Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Age Distribution
Sex Distribution
Visual Acuity
Aged, 80 and over
Middle Aged
Child, Preschool
Visually Impaired Persons
Urban Population
Young Adult
Rights: Copyright © 2009 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
DOI: 10.1080/09286580902737524
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