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|Title:||Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models|
|Citation:||Environmental Pollution, 2008; 156(3):707-714|
|Publisher:||Elsevier Sci Ltd|
|Michael St.J. Warne, Diane Heemsbergen, Mike McLaughlin, Mike Bell, Kris Broos, Mark Whatmuff, Glenn Barry, David Nash, Deb Pritchard and Nancy Penney|
|Abstract:||Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field.|
|Keywords:||Zinc; Copper; Wheat; Phytotoxicity; Soil properties|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ScienceDirect® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V|
|Appears in Collections:||Earth and Environmental Sciences publications|
Environment Institute publications
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