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|Title:||Water transport and aquaporins in grapevines|
|Citation:||Grapevine Molecular Physiology & Biotechnology, 2009 / Roubelakis-Angelakis, K.A. (ed./s), pp.73-103|
|Publisher Place:||Dordrecht, Netherland|
|Organisation:||Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics (ACPFG)|
|S.D. Tyerman, R.K. Vandeleur, M.C. Shelden, J. Tilbrook, G. Mayo, M. Gilliham and B.N. Kaiser|
|Abstract:||Water use and yield in plants are positively linked, and grapevines are no exception. Increased demand for water resources has focused interest on vine physiological factors that may determine how water use affects yield and quality. Yield (Y) depends on transpiration efficiency (W), total amount of water incident on vines (I), transpiration rate (T), and harvest index (HI, proportion of total dry matter removed as harvested product): Y = I x T/I x W x HI (Gibberd et al. 2001). Crop water use efficiency (WUE = Y/I) can be improved by an increase in one or other of three factors; T/I, W or HI. Yield may not be the primary goal for the production of quality wine grapes, but in circumstances where grape quality seems to be linked to yield and thus the relationship between quality and water use is likely to have the same terms as above but with additional non-linear components. We introduce the topic of this chapter through this discussion of WUE, because each of the parameters apart from I that determine WUE are dependent on the regulation of water flow across cellular membranes. Embedded in these membranes exist protein-channels permeable to water called aquaporins. As such, aquaporins control the rate of water transport through grapevines and therefore warrant special attention in the molecular biology andbiotechnology of grapevines.|
|Contents:||1. Introduction 73 2. Capacity of roots and shoots to transport water 75 2.1. Conductance and conductivities 75 2.2. Soil-to-root conductance 76 2.3. Water transport across the root 77 2.4. Xylem transport and embolism 80 2.5. Leaf conductances and the role of ABA 81 3. Water management and grape quality 83 4. Berry water relations 84 4.1. Berry water relations during the stages of development 84 4.2. A hypothesis for berry weight loss 87 5. Aquaporins 87 5.1. Aquaporin structure and selectivity 88 5.2. Regulation of aquaporins 89 5.3. Grapevine aquaporins 91 5.4. Functional studies of grapevine aquaporins 92 5.5. Expression in planta 93 5.6. Aquaporin expression in response to water stress 94 6. Summary 95 Acknowledgements 96 References 96|
|Description:||© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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