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|Title:||Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals|
|Citation:||Atherosclerosis, 2009; 203(1):206-213|
|Publisher:||Elsevier Sci Ireland Ltd|
|Michael Lefevre, Leanne M. Redman, Leonie K. Heilbronn, Julie V. Smith, Corby K. Martin, Jennifer C. Rood, Frank L. Greenway, Donald A. Williamson, Steven R. Smith and Eric Ravussin|
|Abstract:||Calorie restriction (CR) delays the development of age-associated disease and increases lifespan in rodents, but the effects in humans remain uncertain. Purpose: Determine the effect of 6 months of CR with or without exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and estimated 10-year CVD risk in healthy non-obese men and women. Methods: Thirty-six individuals were randomized to one of three groups for 6 months: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% calorie restriction; CR + EX, 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure via aerobic exercise. CVD risk factors were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Results: After 6 months, CR and CR + EX lost approximately 10% of body weight. CR significantly reduced triacylglycerol (−31 ± 15 mg/dL) and factor VIIc (−10.7 ± 2.3%). Similarly CR + EX reduced triacylglycerol (−22 ± 8 mg/dL) and additionally reduced LDL-C (−16.0 ± 5.1 mg/dL) and DBP (−4.0 ± 2.1 mmHg). In contrast, both triacylglycerol (24 ± 14 mg/dL) and factor VIIc (7.9 ± 2.3%) were increased in the Control group. HDL-cholesterol was increased in all groups while hsCRP was lower in the Controls versus CR + EX. Estimated 10-year CVD risk significantly declined from baseline by 29% in CR (P < 0.001) and 38% in the CR + EX (P < 0.001) while remaining unchanged in the Control group. Conclusions: Based on combined favorable changes in lipid and blood pressure, caloric restriction with or without exercise that induces weight loss favorably reduces risk for CVD even in already healthy non-obese individuals.|
|Keywords:||Caloric restriction; Exercise; Cardiovascular risk factors; Nutritional intervention; Weight loss; Aging|
|Rights:||© 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications|
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