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|Title:||Respiratory pattern in awake rats: Effects of motor activity and of alerting stimuli|
|Citation:||Physiology & Behavior, 2010; 101(1):22-31|
|Publisher:||Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd|
|Muammar M. Kabir, Mirza I. Beig, Mathias Baumert, Mimosa Trombini, Francesca Mastorci, Andrea Sgoifo, Frederick R. Walker, Trevor A. Day and Eugene Nalivaiko|
|Abstract:||Our aim was to assess the impact of motor activity and of arousing stimuli on respiratory rate in the awake rats. The study was performed in male adult Sprague–Dawley (SD, n = 5) and Hooded Wistar (HW, n = 5) rats instrumented for ECG telemetry. Respiratory rate was recorded using whole-body plethysmograph, with a piezoelectric sensor attached for the simultaneous assessment of motor activity. All motor activity was found to be associated with an immediate increase in respiratory rate that remained elevated for the whole duration of movement; this was reflected by: i) bimodal distribution of respiratory intervals (modes for slow peak: 336 ± 19 and 532 ± 80 ms for HW and SD, p < 0.05; modes for fast peak 128 ± 6 and 132 ± 7 ms for HW and SD, NS); and ii) a tight correlation between total movement time and total time of tachypnoea, with an R2 ranging 0.96–0.99 (n = 10, p < 0001). The extent of motor-related tachypnoea was significantly correlated with the intensity of associated movement. Mild alerting stimuli produced stereotyped tachypnoeic responses, without affecting heart rate: tapping the chamber raised respiratory rate from 117 ± 7 to 430 ± 15 cpm; sudden side move — from 134 ± 13 to 487 ± 16 cpm, and turning on lights — from 136 ± 12 to 507 ± 14 cpm (n = 10; p < 0.01 for all; no inter-strain differences). We conclude that: i) sniffing is an integral part of the generalized arousal response and does not depend on the modality of sensory stimuli; ii) tachypnoea is a sensitive index of arousal; and iii) respiratory rate is tightly correlated with motor activity.|
|Contents:||1. Introduction 2. Methods 2.1. Ethical approval and preliminary surgery 2.2. Recordings of respiration and gross motor activity 2.3. Experimental protocol 2.4. Data acquisition and analysis 3. Results 3.1. Respiration during basal conditions — qualitative observation 3.2. Assessment of respiratory indices and motor indices 3.3. Relationship between motor activity and respiratory pattern 3.4. Heart rate during basal conditions and its association with motor activity 3.5. Cardiac and respiratory responses to alerting stimuli 4. Discussion 4.1. Respiratory rate in spontaneously behaving rats 4.2. Dissociation between respiratory and cardiac responses to alerting stimuli 4.3. Neural mechanisms underlying motor-related and arousal-induced tachypnoea 4.4. Inter-strain differences 4.5. Physiological role of tachypnoeic responses 5. Conclusions References|
|Keywords:||Respiratory rate; Motor activity; Arousal|
|Rights:||© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Electrical and Electronic Engineering publications|
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