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Type: Journal article
Title: Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin according to patient risk of stroke and of bleeding in atrial fibrillation: a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial
Author: Lopes, R.
Al-Khatib, S.
Wallentin, L.
Yang, H.
Ansell, J.
Bahit, M.
De Caterina, R.
Dorian, P.
Easton, J.
Erol, C.
Ezekowitz, J.
Gersh, B.
Granger, C.
Hohnloser, S.
Horowitz, J.
Hylek, E.
McMurray, J.
Mohan, P.
Vinereanu, D.
Alexander, J.
Citation: The Lancet, 2012; 380(9855):1749-1758
Publisher: Lancet Ltd
Issue Date: 2012
ISSN: 0140-6736
Statement of
Renato D Lopes, Sana M Al-Khatib, Lars Wallentin, Hongqiu Yang, Jack Ansell, M Cecilia Bahit, Raff aele De Caterina, Paul Dorian, J Donald Easton, Cetin Erol, Justin A Ezekowitz, Bernard J Gersh, Christopher B Granger, Stefan H Hohnloser, John Horowitz, Elaine M Hylek, John J V McMurray, Puneet Mohan, Dragos Vinereanu, John H Alexander
Abstract: BACKGROUND The Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial showed that apixaban is better than warfarin at prevention of stroke or systemic embolism, causes less bleeding, and results in lower mortality. We assessed in this trial's participants how results differed according to patients' CHADS₂, CHA₂DS₂VASc, and HAS-BLED scores, used to predict the risk of stroke and bleeding. METHODS ARISTOTLE was a double-blind, randomised trial that enrolled 18 201 patients with atrial fibrillation in 39 countries. Patients were randomly assigned apixaban 5 mg twice daily (n=9120) or warfarin (target international normalised ratio 2.0–3.0; n=9081). The primary endpoint was stroke or systemic embolism. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. We calculated CHADS₂, CHA₂DS₂VASc, and HAS-BLED scores of patients at randomisation. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat, and safety analyses were of the population who received the study drug. ARISTOTLE is registered with, number NCT00412984. FINDINGS Apixaban significantly reduced stroke or systemic embolism with no evidence of a differential effect by risk of stroke (CHADS₂ 1, 2, or ≥3, p for interaction=0.4457; or CHA₂DS₂VASc 1, 2, or ≥3, p for interaction=0.1210) or bleeding (HAS-BLED 0–1, 2, or ≥3, p for interaction=0.9422). Patients who received apixaban had lower rates of major bleeding than did those who received warfarin, with no difference across all score categories (CHADS₂, p for interaction=0.4018; CHA₂DS₂VASc, p for interaction=0.2059; HAS-BLED, p for interaction=0.7127). The relative risk reduction in intracranial bleeding tended to be greater in patients with HAS-BLED scores of 3 or higher (hazard ratio [HR] 0.22, 95% CI 0.10–0.48) than in those with HAS-BLED scores of 0–1 (HR 0.66, 0.39–1.12; p for interaction=0.0604). INTERPRETATION Because apixaban has benefits over warfarin that are consistent across patient risk of stroke and bleeding as assessed by the CHADS₂, CHA₂DS₂VASc, and HAS-BLED scores, these scores might be less relevant when used to tailor apixaban treatment to individual patients than they are for warfarin. Further improvement in risk stratification for both stroke and bleeding is needed, particularly for patients with atrial fibrillation at low risk for these events. FUNDING Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer.
Keywords: Humans
Intracranial Hemorrhages
Atrial Fibrillation
Treatment Outcome
Risk Assessment
Double-Blind Method
Middle Aged
Rights: Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60986-6
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