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Type: Journal article
Title: Risk factors for hypertension during pregnancy in South Australia
Author: Jacobs, D.
Vreeburg, S.
Dekker, G.
Heard, A.
Priest, K.
Chan, A.
Citation: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2003; 43(6):421-428
Publisher: Australian NZ J Obstet Gynaec
Issue Date: 2003
ISSN: 0004-8666
Abstract: Objective: To identify risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy among South Australian women. Design: A population-based retrospective analysis using the South Australian perinatal data collection for 1998–2001. Methods: Three groups of women with hypertension (pre-existing hypertension, pregnancy hypertension, and superimposed pre-eclampsia) were compared with normotensive women using unconditional logistic regression analysis on 70 386 singleton births to identify sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for hypertension in pregnancy. Results: Nulliparity, Aboriginal race and Caucasian race (compared with Asian) and pre-existing and gestational diabetes were demonstrated to be risk factors for all hypertensive disorders, as was increasing maternal age for pre-existing hypertension and superimposed pre-eclampsia. Risk was increased for pregnancy hypertension and superimposed pre-eclampsia among women who gave their occupation as ‘home duties’ and also for superimposed pre-eclampsia among unemployed women. Women with hypertension were more likely to give birth in teaching hospitals. Urinary tract infections were not found to be a risk factor for any type of hypertension. Smoking during pregnancy was protective for all types of hypertension. Conclusions: The present study used a statewide population perinatal database and has confirmed that Aboriginal race, Caucasians, nulliparity, and pre-existing and gestational diabetes are independent risk factors for all types of hypertension in pregnancy. Increasing maternal age increased the risk for pre-existing hypertension and superimposed pre-eclampsia. There appeared to be appropriate referral of women with hypertensive disorders to teaching hospitals. A new finding is the increased risk among unemployed women and women engaged in home duties.
Keywords: Humans
Diabetes, Gestational
Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular
Logistic Models
Risk Factors
Retrospective Studies
Cohort Studies
Maternal Age
Socioeconomic Factors
Population Groups
South Australia
Databases as Topic
Description: The definitive version is available at
DOI: 10.1046/j.0004-8666.2003.00120.x
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Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications

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