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Type: Journal article
Title: Primary treatment results of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Author: Wildeman, M.
Fles, R.
Herdini, C.
Indrasari, R.
Vincent, A.
Tjokronagoro, M.
Stoker, S.
Kurnianda, J.
Karakullukcu, B.
Taroeno-Hariadi, K.
Hamming-Vrieze, O.
Middeldorp, J.
Hariwiyanto, B.
Haryana, S.
Tan, I.
Citation: PLoS One, 2013; 8(5):1-6
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
Statement of
Maarten A. Wildeman, Renske Fles, Camelia Herdini, Rai S. Indrasari, Andrew D. Vincent, Maesadji Tjokronagoro, Sharon Stoker, Johan Kurnianda, Baris Karakullukcu, Kartika W. Taroeno- Hariadi, Olga Hamming-Vrieze, Jaap M. Middeldorp, Bambang Hariwiyanto, Sofia M. Haryana, I. Bing Tan
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) is a major health problem in southern and eastern Asia. In Indonesia NPC is the most frequent cancer in the head and neck area. NPC is very sensitive to radiotherapy resulting in 3-year disease-free and overall survival of approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. Here we present routine treatment results in a prospective study on NPC in a top referral; university hospital in Indonesia. METHODS All NPC patients presenting from September 2008 till January 2011 at the ear, nose and throat (ENT) department of the Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, were possible candidates. Patients were included if the biopsy was a histological proven NPC without distant metastasis and were assessed during counselling sessions prior to treatment, as being able to complete the entire treatment. RESULTS In total 78 patients were included for treatment analysis. The median time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy is 120 days. Forty-eight (62%) patients eventually finished all fractions of radiotherapy. The median duration of the radiotherapy is 62 days for 66 Gy. Median overall survival is 21 months (95% CI 18–35) from day of diagnosis. CONCLUSION The results presented here reveal that currently the treatment of NPC at an Indonesian hospital is not sufficient and cannot be compared to the treatment results in literature. Main reasons for these poor treatment results are (1) a long waiting time prior to the start of radiotherapy, (2) the extended overall duration of radiotherapy and (3) the advanced stage of disease at presentation.
Keywords: Humans
Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Neoplasm Staging
Treatment Outcome
Middle Aged
Young Adult
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Rights: © 2013 Wildeman et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063706
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