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Type: Journal article
Title: Effects of acute and longer-term dietary restriction on upper gut motility, hormone, appetite, and energy-intake responses to duodenal lipid in lean and obese men
Author: Seimon, R.
Taylor, P.
Little, T.
Noakes, M.
Standfield, S.
Clifton, P.
Horowitz, M.
Feinle-Bisset, C.
Citation: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014; 99(1):24-34
Publisher: American Society for Nutrition
Issue Date: 2014
ISSN: 0002-9165
Statement of
Radhika V Seimon, Pennie Taylor, Tanya J Little, Manny Noakes, Scott Standfield, Peter M Clifton, Michael Horowitz, and Christine Feinle-Bisset
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A 4-d 70% energy restriction enhances gastrointestinal sensitivity to nutrients associated with enhanced energy-intake suppression by lipid. To our knowledge, it is unknown whether these changes occur with 30% energy restriction and are sustained in the longer term. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that 1) a 4-d 30% energy restriction would enhance effects of intraduodenal lipid on gastrointestinal motility, gut hormones, appetite, and energy intake in lean and obese men and 2) a 12-wk energy restriction associated with weight loss would diminish effects of acute energy restriction on responses to lipid in in obese men. DESIGN: Twelve obese males were studied before (day 0) and after 4 d (day 5), 4 wk (week 4), and 12 wk (week 12), and 12 lean males were studied before and after 4 d of consumption of a 30% energy–restricted diet. On each study day, antropyloroduodenal pressures, gut hormones, and appetite during a 120-min (2.86-kcal/min) intraduodenal lipid infusion and energy intake at a buffet lunch were measured. RESULTS: On day 5, fasting cholecystokinin was less, and ghrelin was higher, in lean (P < 0.05) but not obese men, and lipid-stimulated cholecystokinin and peptide YY and the desire to eat were greater in both groups (P < 0.05), with no differences in energy intakes compared with on day 0. In obese men, a 12-wk energy restriction led to weight loss (9.7 ± 0.7 kg). Lipid-induced basal pyloric pressures (BPPs), peptide YY, and the desire to eat were greater (P < 0.05), whereas the amount eaten was less (P < 0.05), at weeks 4 and 12 compared with day 0. CONCLUSIONS: A 4-d 30% energy restriction modestly affects responses to intraduodenal lipid in health and obesity but not energy intake, whereas a 12-wk energy restriction, associated with weight-loss, enhances lipid-induced BPP and peptide YY and reduces food intake, suggesting that energy restriction increases gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipid. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( as 12609000943246.
Keywords: Duodenum
Peptide YY
Feeding Behavior
Life Style
Energy Intake
Gastrointestinal Motility
Middle Aged
New Zealand
Lipid Metabolism
Young Adult
Rights: © 2014 American Society for Nutrition
DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.113.067090
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