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|Title:||Recent updates on epigenetic biomarkers for prostate cancer|
|Citation:||Epigenetics and Cancer, 2013 / Sarkar, F.H. (ed./s), Ch.8, pp.129-150|
|Karen Chiam, Tanya Kate Day, and Tina Bianco-Miotto|
|Abstract:||Epigenetics refers to DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs and these epigenetic modifications are extensively investigated as potential biomarkers for cancer. Characterizing genome wide epigenetic changes involved in prostate cancer development and progression will not only identify potential novel therapeutic targets, since some epigenetic modifications are reversible, but also highlight which epigenetic changes can be used as prostate cancer biomarkers. Epigenetic changes are relatively stable and easy to measure in peripheral samples like blood and urine, further highlighting their importance as powerful tools for assessing patient diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we outline how epigenetic biomarkers have been used for diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring therapeutic response in prostate cancer. We also review how epigenetic biomarkers may be more sensitive and specific than current prostate cancer serum markers and the possibility that combining different epigenetic modifications may further enhance the diagnostic and prognostic ability of these epigenetic biomarkers. As epigenome wide studies continue to be performed in larger patient cohorts, we will soon identify the epigenetic modifications involved in prostate tumorigenesis with the resultant identification of new therapeutic targets and robust prostate cancer biomarkers.|
|Keywords:||DNA methylation; Histone modifications; MicroRNA; Diagnostic biomarkers; Prostate cancer|
|Rights:||© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013|
|Appears in Collections:||Medicine publications|
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