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Type: Journal article
Title: The M-OVIN study: does switching treatment to FSH and / or IUI lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with world health organization type II anovulation not conceiving after six ovulatory cycles with clomiphene citrate - a randomised controlled trial
Author: Nahuis, M.
Weiss, N.
van der Veen, F.
Mol, B.
Hompes, P.
Oosterhuis, G.
Lambalk, C.
Smeenk, J.
Koks, C.
van Golde, R.
Laven, J.
Cohlen, B.
Fleischer, K.
Goverde, A.
Gerards, M.
Klijn, N.
Nekrui, L.
van Rooij, I.
Hoozemans, D.
van Wely, M.
Citation: BMC Women's Health, 2013; 13(42):1-7
Publisher: BioMed Central
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 1472-6874
Statement of
Marleen J Nahuis, Nienke S Weiss, Fulco van der Veen, Ben Willem J Mol, Peter G Hompes, Jur Oosterhuis, Nils B Lambalk, Jesper MJ Smeenk, Carolien AM Koks, Ron JT van Golde, Joop SE Laven, Ben J Cohlen, Kathrin Fleischer, Angelique J Goverde, Marie H Gerards, Nicole F Klijn, Lizka CM Nekrui, Ilse AJ van Rooij, Diederik A Hoozemans, and Madelon van Wely.
Abstract: Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is first line treatment in women with World Health Organization (WHO) type II anovulation and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whereas 60% to 85% of these women will ovulate on CC, only about one half will have conceived after six cycles. If women do not conceive, treatment can be continued with gonadotropins or intra-uterine insemination (IUI). At present, it is unclear for how many cycles ovulation induction with CC should be repeated, and when to switch to ovulation induction with gonadotropins and/or IUI. Methods/Design: We started a multicenter randomised controlled trial in the Netherlands comparing six cycles of CC plus intercourse or six cycles of gonadotrophins plus intercourse or six cycles of CC plus IUI or six cycles of gonadotrophins plus IUI. Women with WHO type II anovulation who ovulate but did not conceive after six ovulatory cycles of CC with a maximum of 150 mg daily for five days will be included. Our primary outcome is birth of a healthy child resulting from a pregnancy that was established in the first eight months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, multiple pregnancy and treatment costs. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. Two comparisons will be made, one in which CC is compared to gonadotrophins and one in which the addition of IUI is compared to ovulation induction only. Assuming a live birth rate of 40% after CC, 55% after addition of IUI and 55% after ovulation induction with gonadotrophins, with an alpha of 5% and a power of 80%, we need to recruit 200 women per arm (800 women in total). An independent Data and Safety Monitoring Committee has criticized the data of the first 150 women and concluded that a sample size re-estimation should be performed after including 320 patients (i.e. 80 per arm). Discussion: The trial will provide evidence on the most effective, safest and most cost effective treatment in women with WHO type II anovulation who do not conceive after six ovulatory cycles with CC with a maximum of 150 mg daily for five days. This evidence could imply the need for changing our guidelines, which may cause a shift in large practice variation to evidence based primary treatment for these women.
Keywords: Humans
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Infertility, Female
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Treatment Outcome
Insemination, Artificial
Ovulation Induction
Pregnancy Rate
Rights: © 2013 Nahuis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-13-42
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