Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/2440/92556
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Type: Journal article
Title: Hormonal regulation of the immune microenvironment in the mammary gland
Author: Need, E.
Atashgaran, V.
Ingman, W.
Dasari, P.
Citation: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 2014; 19(2):229-239
Publisher: Springer US
Issue Date: 2014
ISSN: 1083-3021
1573-7039
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Eleanor F. Need, Vahid Atashgaran, Wendy V. Ingman, Pallave Dasari
Abstract: It is well established that the development and homeostasis of the mammary gland are highly dependent upon the actions of ovarian hormones progesterone and estrogen, as well as the availability of prolactin for the pregnant and lactating gland. More recently it has become apparent that immune system cells and cytokines play essential roles in both mammary gland development as well as breast cancer. Here, we review hormonal effects on mammary gland biology during puberty, menstrual cycling, pregnancy, lactation and involution, and dissect how hormonal control of the immune system may contribute to mammary development at each stage via cytokine secretion and recruitment of macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Collectively, these alterations may create an immunotolerant or inflammatory immune environment at specific developmental stages or phases of the menstrual cycle. Of particular interest for further research is investigation of the combinatorial actions of progesterone and estrogen during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and key developmental points where the immune system may play an active role both in mammary development as well as in the creation of an immunotolerant environment, thereby affecting breast cancer risk.
Keywords: Progesterone; Estrogen; Macrophage; T cell; Cytokine
Rights: © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
DOI: 10.1007/s10911-014-9324-x
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 7
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