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|Title:||Expression of a catalytically inactive sphingosine kinase mutant blocks agonist-induced sphingosine kinase activation|
|Citation:||Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2000; 275(43):33945-33950|
|Publisher:||Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc|
|Abstract:||Sphingosine kinase (SK) catalyzes the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid messenger that plays an important role in a variety of mammalian cell processes, including inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of cell proliferation. Basal levels of S1P in cells are generally low but can increase rapidly when cells are exposed to various agonists through rapid and transient activation of SK activity. To date, elucidation of the exact signaling pathways affected by these elevated S1P levels has relied on the use of SK inhibitors that are known to have direct effects on other enzymes in the cell. Furthermore, these inhibitors block basal SK activity, which is thought to have a housekeeping function in the cell. To produce a specific inhibitor of SK activation we sought to generate a catalytically inactive, dominant-negative SK. This was accomplished by site-directed mutagenesis of Gly(82) to Asp of the human SK, a residue identified through sequence similarity to the putative catalytic domain of diacylglycerol kinase. This mutant had no detectable SK activity when expressed at high levels in HEK293T cells. Activation of endogenous SK activity by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-1beta, and phorbol esters in HEK293T cells was blocked by expression of this inactive sphingosine kinase (hSK(G82D)). Basal SK activity was unaffected by expression of hSK(G82D). Expression of hSK(G82D) had no effect on TNFalpha-induced activation of protein kinase C and sphingomyelinase activities. Thus, hSK(G82D) acts as a specific dominant-negative SK to block SK activation. This discovery provides a powerful tool for the elucidation of the exact signaling pathways affected by elevated S1P levels following SK activation. To this end we have employed the dominant-negative SK to demonstrate that TNFalpha activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) is dependent on SK activation.|
|Keywords:||Cells, Cultured; Humans; Sphingosine; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor); Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; Lysophospholipids; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed; Enzyme Activation; Amino Acid Sequence; Catalysis; Molecular Sequence Data|
|Appears in Collections:||Medicine publications|
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