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|Title:||Anthracnose on almond in Australia: disease progress and inoculum sources of Colletotrichum acutatum|
|Citation:||European Journal of Plant Pathology, 2014; 139(4):773-783|
|S.F. McKay, D. Shtienberg, M. Sedgley, E.S. Scott|
|Abstract:||Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, is an important disease of almond and has caused significant economic losses in California, Israel and Australia. Anthracnose development was monitored for three growing seasons in an almond orchard in South Australia on two almond cultivars, Price and Nonpareil, with up to 80 % of fruit affected in 2004. Lesions, typical of anthracnose, formed on young developing fruit and symptoms continued to appear until the fruit were ca 20 mm long, after which no further lesions developed. Symptoms were observed on leaves, woody tissue showed signs of dieback, but blossom blight was not observed. Maximum disease incidenceperfor, man and Relative Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (RAUDPC) were significantly larger for Price than Nonpareil for each season, but differences in the apparent rates of infection for both cultivars were insignificant for the three growing seasons. The apparent rates of infection were correlated with rainfall and daily temperature for the three years combined but there was no correlation between maximum disease incidence or RAUDPC and these environmental parameters. Considerably more mummified fruit remained on the trees of cv. Price than Nonpareil each year; however, there was no correlation between the number of mummified fruit in one season and maximum disease incidence, RAUDPC or apparent rate of infection, in the following season. C. acutatum was recovered from mummified fruit, peduncles and bark, from both Price and Nonpareil, every month throughout a year-long sampling period. C. acutatum was also recovered from asymptomatic leaves, fruit, bark, buds and blossom, however, less frequently and at lower rates than from mummified fruit and peduncles. Recovery was consistently greater from Price than from Nonpareil for all tissues.|
|Keywords:||Anthracnose; almond; Colletotrichum acutatum; epidemiology|
|Rights:||© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 2014|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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