Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/97004
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Type: Journal article
Title: Role of pathogen-derived cell wall carbohydrates and prostaglandin E₂ in immune response and suppression of fish immunity by the oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica
Other Titles: Role of pathogen-derived cell wall carbohydrates and prostaglandin E(2) in immune response and suppression of fish immunity by the oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica
Author: Belmonte, R.
Wang, T.
Duncan, G.
Skaar, I.
Mélida, H.
Bulone, V.
van West, P.
Secombes, C.
Citation: Infection and Immunity, 2014; 82(11):4518-4529
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Issue Date: 2014
ISSN: 0019-9567
1098-5522
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Rodrigo Belmonte, Tiehui Wang, Gary J. Duncan, Ida Skaar, Hugo Mélida, Vincent Bulone, Pieter van West and Christopher J. Secombes
Abstract: Saprolegnia parasitica is a freshwater oomycete that is capable of infecting several species of fin fish. Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by this microbe, has a substantial impact on Atlantic salmon aquaculture. No sustainable treatment against saprolegniosis is available, and little is known regarding the host response. In this study, we examined the immune response of Atlantic salmon to S. parasitica infection and to its cell wall carbohydrates. Saprolegnia triggers a strong inflammatory response in its host (i.e., induction of interleukin-1β1 [IL-1β1], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), while severely suppressing the expression of genes associated with adaptive immunity in fish, through downregulation of T-helper cell cytokines, antigen presentation machinery, and immunoglobulins. Oomycete cell wall carbohydrates were recognized by fish leukocytes, triggering upregulation of genes involved in the inflammatory response, similar to what is observed during infection. Our data suggest that S. parasitica is capable of producing prostaglandin [corrected] E2 (PGE2) in vitro, a metabolite not previously shown to be produced by oomycetes, and two proteins with homology to vertebrate enzymes known to play a role in prostaglandin biosynthesis have been identified in the oomycete genome. Exogenous PGE2 was shown to increase the inflammatory response in fish leukocytes incubated with cell wall carbohydrates while suppressing genes involved in cellular immunity (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] and the IFN-γ-inducible protein [γ-IP]). Inhibition of S. parasitica zoospore germination and mycelial growth by two cyclooxygenase inhibitors (aspirin and indomethacin) also suggests that prostaglandins may be involved in oomycete development.
Keywords: Cell Wall
Description: Corrected by: Erratum for Belmonte et al., Role of Pathogen-Derived Cell Wall Carbohydrates and Prostaglandin E2 in Immune Response and Suppression of Fish Immunity by the Oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica, in Vol. 83, no. 1, p. 454, 2015. Page 4518, abstract, line 9: “prostaglanding” should read “prostaglandin.
Rights: Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
RMID: 0030021013
DOI: 10.1128/IAI.02196-14
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications

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